UNSC - Study Guide
The Security Council has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. It is composed of 15 members of which 5 of them are permanent (United States of America, Russia, China, France and the United Kingdom). Under the UN Charter, all Member States are obligated to comply with Council decisions.
The Security Council takes the lead in determining the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression. It calls upon the parties to a dispute to settle it by peaceful means and recommends
methods of adjustment or terms of settlement. In some cases, the Security Council can resort to
imposing sanctions or even authorize the use of force to maintain or restore international peace
and security. The Council has developed and refined the use of non-military measures including arms embargoes on travel and banks, and restrictions to guard against the exploitation of natural resources to fuel conflicts, as well as taking a lead role in the coordination of international counter-terrorism efforts. Visit the link below to find out more about the UNSC's work and adopted resolutions.
TOPIC A: "Prevention of the militarization of outer space"
Both the UN and International Law have been between armed conflicts through different meetings and elaborating different Treaties through History, many of them related to the use of weapons and military forces, such as the Treaty of Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons or the Geneva Protocols.
The international community has lived diverse arms races and power struggles and progressively directed them to a peace era. The reminiscence of the Cold War’s space career are still on discussion in relation to the militarization of outer space: technology and legal vacuums, converting the outer space in the perfect place to show national’s military wealthiness. It is the Security Council’s duty to reach an agreement that ensures peace and security not only around the globe, but also surrounding our planet.
TOPIC B: "Maritime Piracy in the Gulf of Guinea"
Piracy has occurred throughout history and has become, nowadays, in one of the most prosecuted international crimes. This activity has been bounded to a wide variety of criminal activities, from human trafficking to the hijacking of merchant vessels.
The Gulf of Guinea has been Africa’s main maritime piracy hotpot since 2011 and is now becoming the world’s most piracy affected area; whilst the piracy and armed robbery rates declined, this area experienced a significant rise of violence in 2016. This rising insecurity is affecting to international trading maritime routes and as a consequence, up to 90% of the cost of implementing security measures ant raveling along alternative routes is reflected on the imported products’ prize.
In addition, piracy in the Gulf of Guinea is one of the major causes of gas and oil loss as the
EU meets 13% of its oil and 6% of its gas through resources from this area. Also, this loss
is directly related to water pollution, so there is an urgent need of reaching an
environmental protection plan, which is linked to maritime security.
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